For more information about the origin of life and cell biology, we recommend the following books and research papers.


Douglas Axe
Undeniable: How Biology Confirms Our Intuition That Life Is Designed
Discovery Institute, 2016

Stephen C. Meyer
Signature in the Cell
Harper One, 2009

Susan Mazur
The Origin of Life Circus
Caswell Books, 2014, 2016

James F. Coppedge
Evolution: Possible or Impossible?
Zondervan 1972, reprinted by the author 1993. Portions available online.

Walter L. Bradley & Charles B. Thaxton
“Information and the Origin of Life,” ch. 5 of The Creation Hypothesis
Inter-Varsity Press, 1994

William A. Dembski & Jonathan Wells
The Design of Life: ch. 8, “The Origin of Life”
Foundation for Thought and Ethics, 2008

Discovering Intelligent Design
Evolution News & Views
Illustra Media
YouTube Illustra Media Site


Robert Shapiro, “Life! What a Concept – An Edge Special Event at Eastover Farm,” The Edge (5/09/07)

Arunas L Radzvilavicius, “We’ve Been Wrong About the Origin of Life for 90 Years,” The Conversation, 8/15/16 (criticizes primordial soup hypothesis in favor of hydrothermal vents).

“Kinetic analysis challenges theories of chemistry for the origin of life,” PhysOrg, 7/26/16 (criticizes the plausibility of hydrothermal vents; criticizes overestimates of plausible environments for the origin of life in and beyond our solar system).


Douglas D. Axe, “Estimating the prevalence of protein sequences adopting functional enzyme folds,” Journal of Molecular Biology 2004 Aug 27; 341(5):1295-315.

Douglas D. Axe, “The Case Against a Darwinian Origin of Protein Folds,”Bio-Complexity , Vol. 2010.